In 1993, I opened an independent consulting office in Silicon Valley. In this office I have an extensive research library.

Since I am quite a stickler for proper metrology, I have also invested in a very capable laboratory containing both analog and digital instruments. Here I perform measurements including: high dynamic range phase noise, clock jitter, modulation accuracy and distortion, full semiconductor curve tracing, and vector network analysis.

Tropian was founded and initially located here.

I prefer to guide and augment design teams at client companies in topics of my expertise, rather than to take on full design projects here myself. I find that my measurement capability often augments the lab capabilities of client companies, allowing me to make measurements that they either have no time for, or have no capability to do quickly.